It is a Plant-Based oil and is one of the essential oils extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant. Cottonseed oil It is an important oil and has many uses in the food industry due to its distinctive properties. It is rich in Vitamin-E which act as antioxidants and Resists mold growth in food, which gives the product a longer shelf life. It is known as a “naturally hydrogenated oil” as it contains sufficient natural palmitic, stearic and Myristic acids. Due to the presence of unsaturated oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids it is also known as a “Heart Healthy Oil”, Cottonseed oil has also gained importance in food preparations due to its higher smoke point (about 230 C) compared to other oils and is good for frying food articles like frying potato and corn chips. now it is being used in a wide variety of processed. It is also used in industrial processes such as in biodiesel production, and as an additive for lubricants
The refined oil is pale yellow or almost colorless and consists of glycerides of Palmitic acid, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid and small amounts of Myristic acid and Fatty acid.
The cotton plant is a small shrub that grows in hot places that need abundant water and fertile land. Cotton is one of the most important crops grown globally, there are thousands of hectares of farms in many countries in Asia and Africa. working on cotton cultivation to meet the requirements of the global market for fabric cotton, China ranks first in the world in cotton production with 7 million tons annually, then India is in second place with 6 million tons annually, and third is the United States of America with 3 and a half million tons annually
The scientific name of cotton is: Gossypium SPP
A brief history of Cotton:
The oldest found in history records about cotton is the presence of cotton fabrics in India, where it was found buried underground more than 3 thousand years ago, as well as in Peru, South America.
Scientists found samples of cotton fabrics dating back more than 2500 years.
The most important divisions of cotton:
Many scientists tried to divide the types of cotton, so it has many divisions, the most important ones are:
1- Modern cottons: containing 26 pairs of chromosomes, including:
A- American cotton (Irish) Gossypium Hirstum
B- Sea Island cotton (Peru) Gossypium Barbabense
2- Old cottons: containing 13 pairs of chromosomes, including:
A – Indian cotton (Asian) Gossypium Arboretum
b- African cotton Gossypium Herbaceum
The Cottonseed contains approximately 15-25% of oil and 20-25 % high quality protein, while the pulp contains 30-38% oil.
Crude oil is dark green color and is useless due to the amount of non-oily materials, which are:
- Related pigments
- Free fatty acids more than 2%
Cottonseed oil contains more saturated fatty acids (21-25%) than most equivalent oils in iodine number.
Oil partially freezes when stored at a temperature below 10-16°C
Constants of coconut oil
|Specific Density (15.5° – 25°)||0.92 – 0.93|
|Refractive Index||1.468 – 1.472|
|The Iodine Number||99 – 113|
|Reichert Missile Number||0.4 – 2|
|Polanski Number||0.2 – 0.53|
|Saponification Number||189 – 198|
Nutritional value of Cottonseed Oil
In the following table, the nutritional value per 100 grams:
|Vitamin E||35.5 mg|
|Vitamin K||24.7 µg|
|Saturated fatty acids||25.9 grams|
|Myristic acid C14:0||0.8 mg|
|Palmitic acid C16:0||22.7 g|
|Stearic acid C18:0||2.3 g|
|Monounsaturated fatty acids||17.8 g|
|Oleic acid C18:1||17 g|
|Palmitoleic acid C16:1||0.8 g|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acids||51.9 g|
|Linoleic acid C18:2||51.5 g|
|Alpha-linoleic acid C18:3||0.2 g|
Cottonseed oil Benefits
The benefits of cotton oil on the skin:
Generally, it contains high concentrations of vitamin E, fatty acids and antioxidants that have many benefits for your skin such as:
- Resist aging skin signs, such as: wrinkles.
- Anti-inflammatory properties
Some fatty acids also increase your skin permeability, thus allowing your skin to absorb other ingredients better to achieve best results.
Cottonseed oil contains some healthy fats that may help reduce and resist various infections’ intensity in the body, so following a diet by using cottonseed oil or applying it topically on the skin may help reduce associated symptoms intensity for some diseases.
Cottonseed oil contains large amounts of vitamin E, which is an antioxidant that has many proven benefits for skin, including quickly wound healing. Vitamin E has also been shown a positive effect on skin ulcer, psoriasis, and other skin diseases and injuries.
Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
The unsaturated fats in cottonseed oil may help reduce bad cholesterol LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and increase good cholesterol HDL (high-density lipoprotein). This can improve blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
This may be because cottonseed oil contains:
- Omega 3 fatty acids.
- Omega-6 fatty acids.
A special type of fatty acids may not be found in other oils that can be used for cooking, such as olive oil, so eating cooked food by cottonseed oil may help reduce the chances of cardiovascular disease.
However, cottonseed oil is also higher by saturated fat than other vegetable oils, which can have an opposite effect, and there are other options that can be healthier for the heart.
benefits of cottonseed oil for hair growth
Research has found that some vegetable oils can help to improve your hair health. These oils work by:
- Moisturizing hair.
- Prevent protein loss.
- Also protection from design and environmental damages.
- It also reduces the possibility of split ends of healthy hair, which may help hair growth.
While this can apply to cottonseed oil, but there is no scientific evidence available specifically for that.
Benefits of cottonseed oil in strengthening immunity:
Most vegetable oils are pro-oxidant in nature and so that exacerbate the oxidative process and inflammation in the body, but cottonseed oil is rich in antioxidant properties due to the presence of natural unsaturated fats along with vitamin E, it supports the immune system and reduces the chances of infectious diseases.
cottonseed oil side effects:
People with sensitive skin may experience itching, inflammation and skin redness when using it. Also, a small patch test should be done on the skin before applying it on body large areas.
Its effect on male fertility
Studies show that Gossypol can reduce sperm production and motility, and thus could impair a man’s ability to procreation.
It contains a percentage of toxins
Cotton is sprayed with pesticides in large and unrestricted quantities, so some oils may contain a high percentage of harmful toxins resulting from the used pesticides, and so that some toxins are directly related to the effects which cause cancer in the body.